Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological responses of elderly women to awell-rounded exercise program performed in water (WEX).
Methods: The participants (60–75 yr of age) were randomly divided intoa training (TR) group (N _ 15) and a control group (N _ 15). The TR group participated in a 12-wk supervised WEX program, 70min·day_1, 3 d·wk_1. The WEX consisted of 20 min of warm-up and stretching exercise, 10 min of resistance exercise, 30 min ofendurance-type exercise (walking and dancing), and 10 min of cool-down exercise.
Results: The WEX led to an increase (P _ 0.05)in peak V˙ O2 (12%) and V˙ O2 at lactate threshold (20%). Muscular strength evaluated by a hydraulic resistance machine increasedsignificantly at resistance dial setting 8 (slow) for knee extension (8%), knee flexion (13%), chest press (7%) and pull (11%), shoulderpress (4%) and pull (6%), and back extension (6%). Vertical jump (9%), side-stepping agility (22%), trunk extension (11%), and FEV1.0(7%) also increased significantly. There was a significant decrease in skin-fold thickness (_8%), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol (_17%), and total cholesterol (_11%). There were no significant changes in these variables in the control group.
Conclusion: These results indicate that WEX elicits significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, body fat,and total cholesterol in older adult women. Water-based exercise appears to be a very safe and beneficial mode of exercise that canbe performed as part of a well-rounded exercise program.