Background and Purpose. Joint replacement procedures are increasing. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to determine if aquatic the rapy is an effective intervention post-total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and/or total hip arthroplasty (THA).Methods. Inclusion criteria for review were: (1) TKA or THA, (2) aquatic therapy group (3) comparison group without aquatic therapy, (a) specific outcome measures, and(5) randomized controlled trials. Evidence level was determined by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Methodological rigor of each study was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results. Of 1,508 articles reviewed, 6 were included. Four ound significant differences favouring aquatic the rapy. One found no differences between aquatic and land therapy. One found no differences between specific aquatic, nonspecific aquatic, and land therapy. Conclusion. Aquatic therapy is a viable intervention option for improving function, pain, and quality of life in individuals followitg TKA or THA. Key Words: Total knee arthroplasty, Total hip arthroplasty, Aquatic therapy, Aquatics, Hydrotherapy.