Aidar (2013) Depression and anxiety in stroke

Background: Stroke ranks third and is the lead- ing cause of permanent disability in western countries. Furthermore there are no treatments for the psychosocial effects of this pathology. Purpose: Analyse the effect of an aquatic exer- cise program in depression and trace and state anxiety in subjects who suffered an ischemic stroke.

Methods: Two groups were analyzed: ex- perimental group (EG) n = 15, 50.3 ± 9.1 years; control group (CG) n = 13, 52.5 ± 7.7 years. EG underwent a 12-week aquatic exercise program. Both groups were evaluated in pre and post- treatment using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Trace State Anxiety Inventory (IDATE). Wil- coxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare moments and groups, respec- tively.

Results: The BDI scores of aquatic acti- vities were: pre-treatment, 17.4 ± 7.7 and 16.9 ± 8.6 for the EG and CG, respectively; post-treat- ment, 13.2 + 7.1 and 16.4 + 7.9 for the EG and CG, respectively. The IDATE scores for anxiety trace in strength training were: pre-treatment, 43.2 + 12.5 and 42.9 + 12.2 for the EG and CG, respec- tively; post-treatment, 39.7 + 7.1 and 42.6 + 12.1 for the EG and CG, respectively. The IDATE scores for anxiety state in strength training were: pre-treatment, 46.9 + 7.6 and 47.4 + 8.1 for the EG and CG, respectively; post-treatment, 44.4 + 7.9 and 47.5 + 8.0 for the EG and CG, respectively. Significant differences were found in pre and post-treatment values in the EG and between groups in the depression and trace and state anxiety levels in post-treatment (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Aquatic physical activity contributes to an improvement of the levels of depression and anxiety in people who suffered a stroke.

Effects of aquatic exercise on depression and anxiety
in ischemic stroke subjects
Felipe J. Aidar1, Nuno D. Garrido2*, Antnio J. Silva2, Victor M. Reis2, Daniel A. Marinho3,
Ricardo Jac de Oliveira4 15th Military State Fireman, Uberlndia, Brazil 2University of Trs-os-Montes and Alto DouroUTADCIDESD, Vila Real, Portugal; *Corresponding Author: ngarrido@utad.pt 3University of Beira InteriorUBICIDESD, Covilh, Portugal 4University of BrasliaUnB, Braslia, Brazil

Received 6 December 2012; revised 5 January 2013; accepted 13 January 2013
ABSTRACT
Background: Stroke ranks third and is the lead-
ing cause of permanent disability in western
countries. Furthermore there are no treatments
for the psychosocial effects of this pathology.
Purpose: Analyse the effect of an aquatic exer-
cise program in depression and trace and state
anxiety in subjects who suffered an ischemic
stroke. Methods: Two groups were analyzed: ex-
perimental group (EG) n = 15, 50.3 9.1 years;
control group (CG) n = 13, 52.5 7.7 years. EG
underwent a 12-week aquatic exercise program.
Both groups were evaluated in pre and post-
treatment using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
and Trace State Anxiety Inventory (IDATE). Wil-
coxon signed-rank and Mann-Whitney tests were
used to compare moments and groups, respec-
tively. Results: The BDI scores of aquatic acti-
vities were: pre-treatment, 17.4 7.7 and 16.9
8.6 for the EG and CG, respectively; post-treat-
ment, 13.2 + 7.1 and 16.4 + 7.9 for the EG and CG,
respectively. The IDATE scores for anxiety trace
in strength training were: pre-treatment, 43.2 +
12.5 and 42.9 + 12.2 for the EG and CG, respec-
tively; post-treatment, 39.7 + 7.1 and 42.6 + 12.1
for the EG and CG, respectively. The IDATE
scores for anxiety state in strength training were:
pre-treatment, 46.9 + 7. 6 and 47.4 + 8.1 for the
EG and CG, respectively; post-treatment, 44.4 +
7.9 and 47.5 + 8.0 for the EG and CG, respectively.
Significant differences were found in pre and
post-treatment values in the EG and between
groups in the depression and trace and state
anxiety levels in post-treatment (p 0.05). Con-
clusions: Aquatic physical activity contributes
to an improvement of the levels of depression
and anxiety in people who suffered a stroke. Keywords:
Aquatic Physical Activity; Beck
Depression Inventory; Cardiovascular Disease;
Cerebrovascular Accident; Ischemic Stroke; Trace
State Anxiety Inventory
1. INTRODUCTION
The stroke incidence has in creased in recent years.
Regarding its mortality, the stroke ranks third in causes
of permanent disability, being the main cause of perma-
nent disability in western countries 1,2. The American
Heart Association estimates that there are four million
stroke survivors in the United States and that 600.000
new cases occur annually 3. In Brazil stroke represents
one third of deaths from circulatory diseases per year and
assumes a prominent place in conjunction with other
cardiovascular problems 4,5. Moreover, treatments for possible negative psychoso-
cial effects of the disease are uncertain and somewhat
unreliable 6, being the most appropriate treatment di-
rected towards its systematiz ation with accurate diagno-
sis. Moreover, action within an optimal timeframe,
within the first three hours after the stroke and with the
proper workup, is also reported 7-11. In this sense, one
can observe a clear tendency to treatments only directed
for pharmacologic intervention. In the same way, a de-
layed intervention tends to cause more squeals and treat-
ment difficulties 12. Indeed, the squeals may occur as a
consequence of cerebral ischemia lasting four to six
hours, producing irreversible neurological damage 13,
14. Moreover, among adults, the stroke squeals are con-
sidered the most common causes of disability 15. Ac-
cordingly, there is a need to continued treatment and
monitoring of people with stroke squeals 16, where the
psychosocial aspects tend to be compromised. On the other hand, stroke is associated to cognitive
dysfunction and functional impairment, leading to diffi-
Co

pyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228 223
culties in walking and interference in aspects related to
depression and social features 17. Thus, the presence of
depression and anxiety should be appropriately treated,
where the focus of intervention should be to improve
functional aspects 18.
Physical activity can have positive effects on physical
and psychosocial aspects. The practice of moderate
physical activity is likely to have a positive impact, sig-
nificantly reducing anxiety levels 19, suggesting that
the anxiolytic effects of acute exercise tend to be statis-
tically positive 20. Similarly, strength training besides
promoting strength gains also significantly reduces anxi-
ety levels in stroke survivors 21. Moreover, Ischemic
stroke survivors undergoing the practice of aquatic ac-
tivities showed significant improvements in levels of
quality of life when compared to survivors who were not
submitted to physical activities 6. Apart from this, the benefits of physical activity for
people affected by stroke has been reported and linked to
improvements in standards of life quality 22, and re-
lated to rehabilitation of these patients 23. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the improve-
ment in depression and anxiety in stroke patients through
aquatic physical activities. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence
of aquatic exercise on depression and anxiety in persons
with squeals due to ischemic stroke. We hypothesized
that aquatic exercise decrease depression and anxiety in
persons with squeals due to ischemic stroke.
2. METHODS
2.1. Sample
Thirty one subjects participated in this study and were
randomly divided, 16 to the Experimental Group (EG)
and 15 to the Control Group (CG). These groups were
changed after the beginning of activities as one of the EG
subjects did not follow the program. In the CG two sub-
jects were not evaluated in post-treatment. Finally, the
EG was composed of 15 subjects, being 10 males and 5
females (and CG was composed of 13 individuals, being
9 males and 4 females. Groups characteristic is shown in
Ta b l e 1 .
The participation in the study required previous medi-
cal clearance. As a criterion for eligibility, only subjects
who have suffered ischemic st roke for at least one year
and subjects having hemiplegia or hemiparesis. The clas-
sification was followed according to the Ranking Scale
24,25. In GE 6.7% of the subjects had mild disability,
66.7% moderate disability and 26.7% higher disability.
In CG 15.4% of the subjects had mild disability, 61.5%
moderate disability and 23.1% higher disability ( Ta b l e 2).
There were neither asymptomatic patients nor patients
Ta b l e 1 . Groups data.
Experimental group (n = 15) Mean and SD
age
50.3 9.1
age (male)
50 10.6
age (female) 50.8 7.6
sex (malefemale) 105
Control group n = (13) Mean and SD
age 52.5 7.7
age (male) 52.3 9.0
age (female) 52.8 4.8
sex (malefemale) 94

Ta b l e 2 . Deficit and affected side in relation to dominant and
non-dominant limb.
Experimental group* No subjects
Dominant Non-dominant
Mild disability 0 1
Moderate disability 1 9
Higher disability 1 3
Control group
*
Mild disability 1 1
Moderate disability 2 6
Higher disability 0 3
*All subjects were right-handed.

with non-disabling deficit or with severe disabilities.
All subjects, after being informed about the proce-
dures, voluntarily agreed to participate in this study, and
signed a written consent to resolution 1961996 of the
National Health Council, in accordance with the ethical
principles contained in the D eclaration of Helsinki (1964,
revised in 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996 and 2000), of the
World Medical Association.
The subjects underwent a pre-treatment testing and the
experimental group (EG) began aquatic physical activi-
ties while the other group (CG) only began the activities
four months after the EG, thus serving as control group.
2.2. Instruments
2.2.1. Beck Depression Inventory The Beck Depression Inventory (Beck Depression In-
ventoryBDI) 26,27 has been often used as a measure
of self-assessment of depressi on in research and clinical
practice 28, as it is validated in several countries. The original scale consists of 21 items, including sym-
ptoms and attitudes, whose measurement ranges from 0
to 3. These items are relate to sadness, pessimism, sense
of failure, lack of satisfaction, feelings of guilt, feelings
of punishment, self-deprecatio n, self-accusations, suici-
Copyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228 224
dal ideas, crying spells, irritability, social withdrawal,
indecisiveness, body image distortion, work inhibition,
sleep disturbance, fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss,
somatic concerns and decreased libido.
The Beck Inventory 26,27,29,30 allows various cut-
offs points, depending on the nature of the sample and
the study objectives. For the proposed sample Center
for Cognitive Therapy 31 recommends the following
cutoffs points: 10 = no depression or minimal depres-
sion; 10 to 18 = from mild to moderate depression; 19 to
29 = moderate to severe depression; 30 to 63 = severe
depression.
2.2.2. Trace State Anxiety Inventory IDATE (State-Trait Anxiety InventorySTAI: Form
Y)
For the assessment of anxiety the Trace State Anxiety
Inventory (IDATE) 32,33 was used. The IDATE is a
self-assessment questionnaire divided in two parts: the
first assesses anxiety traitIDATE I (referring to aspects
of personality) and the second part assesses the anxiety
stateIDATE II (referring to the systemic aspects of the
context). Each of these parts consists of 20 statements. A
score ranging from 1 to 4 is assigned to each item of both
scales and the total score can range from 20 (minimum)
to 80 (maximum). When answering the questionnaire,
the subject should consider that STATE means as the
subject feels at that partic ular moment and TRACE as
the subject generally feels its elf. Usually the scores may
indicate a low degree of anxiety (0 - 30), medium degree
of anxiety (31 - 49) and high degree of anxiety (50), i.e.,
the lower the score, the lower the degree of anxiety
32,33.
2.3. Procedures
Questionnaires were administered before the begin-
ning of physical activity programs (pre-treatment) and
then after 12 weeks (post-tr eatment). Between pretreat-
ment and post-treatment EG underwent an aquatic phy-
sical activity program and the CG was not submitted to
any kind of specific physical activity. Aquatic activities took place in a swimming pool with
25 12.5 m size and with an average depth of 1.5 m.
Several apparatus for the practice of water activities were
used during aquatic exercises. Activities were undertaken
twice a week in sessions lasting between 45 and 60 min-
utes in the period from 07:00 to 19:00 hours. The ses-
sions comprised 5 to 10 minute of dry land warm up ac-
tivities; 5 to 10 minutes of walking in the swimming pool
with breast level water height; 5 to 10 minutes pedaling
work out with Spaghetti; 5 to 10 minutes of climbing and
descending of pool degrees; 5 to 10 minutes of exercises
for upper and lower limbs with educational material; breathing exercises, doing bubbles in the water; 10 min-
utes of swimming; and 5 minutes of low-intensity exer-
cise allowing calm return.
The Borg Scale of perceived exertion was used, at lev-
els comprised between 12 and 17 points 34. The scale
was presented to the subjects at the beginning of the ac-
tivities. Subjects need to attribute a numerical value cor-
responding to their perception of effort at that particular
moment. These values were corrected till the intended
values and were readjusted during the intervention.
2.4. Statistics
Normality was determined by Shapiro-Wilk test. Since
the very low value of the N ( i.e., N 30) and the rejec-
tion of the null hypothesis (H 0) in the normality assess-
ment, non-parametric procedures were adopted. Mean
1 standard deviation was determined for each variable.
Changes between pre and post -treatment were verified
by the Wilcoxon test for repeated measures. To compare
EG with the CG in pre and post-treatment the Mann-
Whitney test for independent samples was used. All sta-
tistical procedures were conducted with SPSS software
(v. 13.0, Apache Software Foundation, Chicago, IL,
USA). The level of significance was set at p 0.05.
3. RESULTS
Subjects were evaluated before and after the onset of
exercise (pre and post-treatme nt), establishing compara-
tive data to understand the effects that the activities pro-
vided for depression and anxiety ( Ta b l e 3).
The results showed a significant difference for the EG
in the variables analysed (depression, anxiety trace and
anxiety state). No significant difference was found be-
tween pre and post-treatment for the CG (p 0.05). In
the comparison between the EG and CG significant dif-
ferences were found (p 0.05) for indicators of depres-
sion and anxiety in the post-treatment ( Ta b l e 4). The
results pointed towards significant differences (p 0.05)
between the EG and CG on levels of depression and
anxiety trait and state. No differences were obtained be-
tween EG and CG in pre-test.
4. DISCUSSION
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of
aquatic exercise on depression and anxiety in persons
with sequelae due to ischemic stroke. Main results sug-
gested that the levels of depression and anxiety in people
who suffered a stroke have decreased when involved in
an aquatic activity program during 12 weeks.
The results show that the subjects had similar levels of
depression in the pre-test and were considered moder-
ately depressed. The results corroborate other studies that
indicate that stroke is a severe disease, with high morta-
Co

pyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228 225
Ta

b l e 3 .
Means ( SD) in pre and post-treatment concerning
depression using the Beck depression inventory (depression)
and IDATE I and II (Anxiety trace and state) in experimental
group (EG) and control group (CG).
Pre-Test Post-Test
EGaquatic activities (depression)
17.4 7.7 13.2 7.1*
CG (depression)
16.9 8.6 16.4 7.9
EGstrength training (anxiety trace) 43.2 12.5 39.7 7.1
*
CG (anxiety trace)
42.9 12.2 42.6 12.1
EGstrength training (anxiety state) 46.9 7.6 44.4 7.9
*
CG (anxiety state)
47.4 8.1 47.5 8.0
*p 0.05 (Wilcoxon test).

Ta b l e 4 . Comparison of means ( SD) of depression using the
Beck depression inventory and anxiety using the IDATE I and
II in EG and CG in post treatment.

EG CG
Depression
13.2 7.1* 16.4 7.9
Anxiety trace
39.7 7.1* 42.6 12.1
Anxiety state 44.4 7.9
* 47.5 8.0
*p 0.05 (Mann-Whitney test).

lity and high rates of recidivism 35-39, showing that
sequels tend to be definitive 40-42. The same type of
results could be expected if the subjects had used drugs
for this purpose. However, there was no pharmacological
support, which can be considered as a positive result. In
the study of Simis and Nitrini 43, where pharmacol-
ogical support was used, after three months of follow up,
patients who initially had mild depressive symptoms
began to have higher values, where treatment was asso-
ciated with improved mood, memory and attention.
A prospective study with 3525 subjects, aged between
65 and 84 years, in several Italian cities, showed that
older people tend to an increased risk of depression
caused mainly by declining physical condition 44, thus
corroborating the results of this study where inactive
people tend to have an increased rate of depression. In
contrast, a study that exam ined 9374 patients who un-
derwent surgery in 69 hospitals in North America, has
shown that depression is not only associated with a rela-
tively active life, but to othe r associated factors 45.
Similarly, in a study that evaluated 101 patients, with
chronic symptomatic disease at neuromuscular level, it
was observed the relationship of physical dysfunction
with depression and anxiety. Two years after the diagno-
sis, these patients had increased the levels of depression
that could be associated with different types of dysfunc-
tions in relation to pathology 46, converging with our
results, where inactivity could cause an increase in de-
pression levels. Yet, research has shown that symptoms of depression and disability are closely related, when studying moder-
ate physical activities and the association between signs
of depression and disability, with 645 subjects aged 65
years or more 47. Physical
activity had a modifier ef-
fect in symptoms of depression and proved to be a factor
of change on disability matters. Even moderate and in-
tense physical activity lead to a significant decrease in
symptoms of depression, assu ming that physical activi-
ties are an effective means to reduce the signs of depres-
sion 47. Therefore, regular exercise tends to improve
the quality of life, the ability to work and leisure, and
reduces the incidence of new strokes and the consequent
decrease in physical ability 48. The evidence point out
that physical activity is the best way to reduce stress in
people with disabilities, with a tendency for improve-
ments in social and emotional aspects for those who
practice it regularly 49. In a research conducted in Bra-
zil, depression following stroke was analyzed, noting that
this long-term psychosocial status proved to be very im-
portant in victims of cerebrovascular events 50. When
trying to identify what caused the maintenance of high
levels of depression, it was pointed out that depression
was significantly higher in women and it was associated
with work issues, educational level, low social activity,
functional cognitive problems and dependence on some-
one else, and still the prevalence of other pathologies
associated with the stroke 50. For anxiety, the results
suggest that aquatic physical activities were an important
factor in reducing anxiety levels. Corroborating with this,
in a study involving 104 patients, the levels of anxiety
and depression after stroke were compared four months
after the event, where 23% of subjects presented high
levels of anxiety and 19% presented high levels of de-
pression, where anxiety levels remained high even after
four months after the stroke 51. These results are simi-
lar to the results in our study in the control group, which
even after three months of the stroke subjects showed no
improvement in anxiety levels. In an investigation where
71 patients with confirmed history of stroke were studied,
it was demonstrated that the absence of movement could
increase levels of anxiety 52, indicating that immobi-
lizing patients after stroke, tends to increase the negative
aspects of the pathology and further contributes to
worsen the symptoms of anxiety and irritability. Fure 53
reported that in patients affect ed by stroke in Norway, the
emotional factor may be neglected after an event and that
anxiety exceeds normal levels in 20% - 30% of patients.
Yet 10% - 15% of patients had an emotional imbalance,
and 50% - 70% of patients had reduction of initiatives
and increased fatigue, and that the treatment was only
pharmacological, with no evidence of the success of me-
dical intervention. On the other hand, the beneficial ef-
fects of exercise are well documented, but physical ac-
tivity can increase levels of anxiety as well. In assessing
Copyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228 226
the relationship of physical activity and anxiety in 3289
subjects, Conn 54 noted that some activities could re-
duce anxiety in healthy adults; however, there could be a
direct relationship between casual increased anxiety and
physical activities.
The intervention of this study was to simulate what
was preconized by Subirats Bayego et al. 55, where the
benefits of physical activity tend to encompass stroke
among other diseases, being the benefits associated with
moderate aerobic exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days
a week or vigorous exercise for at least 20 minutes 3
days a week.
5. CONCLUSION
The results of this study suggest that the practice of
aquatic physical activity tends to promote improvements
in the levels of depression and anxiety in people who
suffered an Ischemic Stroke.

REFERENCES
1 Kjeldsen, S.E., Erdine, S., Fa rsang, C., Sleight, P. and
Mancia, G. (2002) 1999 WHOISH Hypertension Guide-
linesHighlights & ESH update. Journal of Hyperten-
sion, 20, 153-155.
doi:10.109700004872-200201000-00022

2 Frey, J.L., Jahnke, H.K. and Bulfinch, E.W. (1998) Dif-
ferences in stroke between white, hispanic, and native
American patients: The barrow neurological institute
stroke database. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation ,
29, 29-33. doi:10.116101.STR.29.1.29

3 Haacke, C., Althaus, A., Spottk e, A., Siebert, U., Back, T.
and Dodel, R. (2006) Long-term outcome after stroke:
Evaluating health-related quality of life using utility meas-
urements. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation , 37,
193-198. doi:10.116101.STR.0000196990.69412.fb

4 Pittella, J.E.H. and Duarte, J.E. (2002) Prevalence and
pattern of distribution of cerebrovascular diseases in 242
hospitalized elderly patients, in a general hospital, autop-
sied in Belo Horizonte, Mi nas Gerais, Brazil, from 1976
to 1997. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria , 60, 47-55.
doi:10.1590S0004-282X2002000100010

5 Rezende, E.M., Sampaio, I.B.M. and Ishitani, L.H. (2004)
Multiple causes of death due to non-communicable dis-
eases: A multidimensional analysis. Cadernos De Sade
PblicaMinistrio Da Sade , Fundao Oswaldo Cruz ,
Escola Nacional De Sade Pblica , 20, 1223-1231.
doi:10.1590S0102-311X2004000500016

6 Aidar, F.J., Silva, A.J., Reis, V.M., Carneiro, A. and
Carneiro-Cotta, S. (2007) A study on the quality of life in
ischaemic vascular accidents and its relation to physical
activity. Revista De Neurologia , 45, 518-522.
7 Solenski, N.J. (2004) Transient ischemic attacks: Part I.
Diagnosis and evaluation. American Family Physician ,
69, 1665-1674.
8 Esteve, M., Serra-Prat, M., Zaldvar, C., Verdaguer, A. and Berenguer, J. (2004) Impact
of a clinical pathway for
stroke patients. Gaceta SanitariaS.E.S.P.A.S , 18, 197-204.
9 Maestre-Moreno, J.F. (2006) Stroke and resources for
urgent neurological attention: Why arrive in time? Re-
vista De Neurologia , 42, 65-67.
10 Morales-Ortiz, A., Amorn, M., Fages, E.M., et al. (2006)
Use of extra-hospital emergency systems in the treatment
of acute stroke in the region of Murcia. Possible reper-
cussions on the urgent care of stroke patients. Revista De
Neurologia , 42, 68-72.
11 Chang, C.-F., Lin, S.-Z., Chiang, Y.-H., Morales, M.,
Chou, J., Lein, P., Chen, H.-L., Hoffer, B.J. and Wang, Y.
(2003) Intravenous administration of bone morphogenetic
protein-7 after ischemia improves motor function in stroke
rats. Stroke ; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation , 34, 558-
564. doi:10.116101.STR.0000051507.64423.00

12 Mokudai, T., Ayoub, I.A., Sa kakibara, Y., Lee, E.J.,
Ogilvy, C.S. and Maynard, K.I. (2000) Delayed treatment
with nicotinamide (Vitamin B(3)) improves neurological
outcome and reduces infarct volume after transient focal
cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. Stroke; A Journal of
Cerebral Circulation , 31, 1679-1685.
doi:10.116101.STR.31.7.1679

13 Chang, K

.-C., Tseng, M.-C. and Tan, T.-Y. (2004) Pre-
hospital delay after acute st roke in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Stroke ; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation , 35, 700-704.
doi:10.116101.STR.0000117236.90827.17

14 Abboud, H., Labreuche, J., Plouin, F. and Amarenco, P.
(2006) High blood pressure in early acute stroke: A sign
of a poor outcome? Journal of Hypertension , 24, 381-
386. doi:10.109701.hjh.0000200516.33194.e3

15 Samsa, G.P. and Matchar, D.B. (2004) How strong is the
relationship between functional status and quality of life
among persons with stroke? Journal of Rehabilitation
Research and Development , 41, 279-282.
doi:10.1682JRRD.2003.08.0117

16 Clark, T.G., Murphy, M.F.G. and Rothwell, P.M. (2003)
Long term risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and
vascular death in low risk patients with a non-recent
transient ischaemic attack. Journal of Neurology, Neuro-
surgery , and Psychiatry , 74, 577-580.
doi:10.1136jnnp.74.5.577

17 Moon, Y.-S., Kim, S.-J., Kim, H.-C., Won, M.-H. and
Kim, D.-H. (2004) Correlates of quality of life after stroke.
Journal of the Neurological Sciences , 224, 37-41.
doi:10.1016j.jns.2004.05.018

18 Kimura, M., Robinson, R.G. and Kosier, J.T. (2000)
Treatment of cognitive impairment after poststroke de-
pression: A double-blind treatment trial. Stroke; A Journal
of Cerebral Circulation , 31 , 1482-1486.
doi:10.116101.STR.31.7.1482

19 Sarris, J., Moylan, S., Camfield, D.A., Pase, M.P., Mis-
choulon, D., Berk, M., Jacka, F.N. and Schweitzer, I.
(2012) Complementary medicine, exercise, meditation,
diet, and lifestyle modification for anxiety disorders: A
review of current evidence. Evidence-Based Complemen-
tary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM , 809653.
20 Smith, J.C. (2013) Effects of emotional exposure on state
anxiety after acute exercise. Medicine and Science in
Co

pyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228 227
Sports and Exer

cise , 45, 372-378.
doi:10.1249MSS.0b013e31826d5ce5

21 Aidar, F.J., De Oliveira, R.J., Silva, A.J., De Matos, D.G.,
Mazini Filho, M.L., Hickner, R.C. and Machado Reis, V.
(2012) The influence of resi stance exercise training on
the levels of anxiety in ischemic stroke. Stroke Research
and Treatment , 298375.
22 Aidar, F.J., De Oliveira, R.J., Silva, A.J., De Matos, D.G.,
Carneiro, A.L., Garrido, N., Hickner, R.C. and Reis, V.M.
(2011) The influence of the level of physical activity and
human development in the quality of life in survivors of
stroke. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 9, 89.
doi:10.11861477-7525-9-89

23 Skidmore, E.R., Whyte, E.M., Holm, M.B., Becker, J.T.,
Butters, M.A., Dew, M.A., Munin, M.C. and Lenze, E.J.
(2010) Cognitive and affective predictors of rehabilitation
participation after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation , 91, 203-207.
doi:10.1016j.apmr.2009.10.026

24 De Haan, R., Limburg, M., Bossuyt, P., Van der Meulen, J.
and Aaronson, N. (1995) The clinical meaning of Rankin
handicap grades after stroke. Stroke; A Journal of Ce-
rebral Circulation , 26, 2027-2030.
doi:10.116101.STR.26.11.2027

25 Brazilian Society of Cerebrovascular Diseases (BSCD)
(1999) Working group on cerebrovascular pathology of
ABN. Rankin scale of disab ility changed and modified
Barthel index. Newsletter, 6, 7-12.
26 Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. and
Erbaugh, J. (1961) An inventory for measuring depres-
sion. Archives of General Psychiatry , 4, 561-571.
doi:10.116101.STR.26.11.2027

27 Gorenstein, C. and Andrade, L. (1998) Inventrio de de-
presso de beck: Propriedade s psicomtricas da verso
em portugus. Revista de Psiquiatria Clnica , rgo Ofi-
cial do Departamento e Ins tituto de Psiquiatria Fa-
culdade de MedicinaUniversidade de So Paulo , 25,
245-250.
28 Dunn, G., Sham, P. and Hand, D. (1993) Statistics and the
nature of depression. Psychological Medicine , 23, 871-
889. doi:10.1017S0033291700026350

29 Gotlib, I.H. (1984) Depression and general psychopa-
thology in university students. Journal of Abnormal Psy-
chology , 93, 19-30. doi:10.10370021-843X.93.1.19

30 Tanaka-Matsumi, J. and Kame oka, V.A. (1986) Reliabil-
ities and concurrent validities of popular self-report meas-
ures of depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Jour-
nal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 54, 328-333.
doi:10.10370022-006X.54.3.328

31 Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A. and Carbin, M.G. (1988) Psycho-
metric properties of the beck depression inventory: Twenty-
five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review , 8,
77-100. doi:10.10160272-7358(88)90050-5

32 Spielberger, C.D. and Gorsuch, R.L. (1983) Manual for
the State-trait anxiety invent ory (form Y) (self-evalua-
tion questionnaire). Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo
Alto.
33 Biaggio, A. and Natalcio, L. (1979) Traduo e adapta- o do manual de psicologia aplicada IDATE, Rio de Ja-
neiro.
34 Borg, G.A. (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exer-
tion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 14,
377-381. doi:10.124900005768-198205000-00012

35 Douglas, V.C., Johnston, C.M ., Elkins, J., Sidney, S.,
Gress, D.R. and Johnston, S.C. (2003) Head computed
tomography findings predict s hort-term stroke risk after
transient ischemic attack. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral
Circulation , 34 , 2894-2898.
doi:10.116101.STR.0000102900.74360.D9

36 Flossmann, E. and Rothwell, P.M. (2003) Prognosis of
vertebrobasilar transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke.
Brain : A Journal of Neurology , 126 , 1940-1954.
37 Hardie, K., Hankey, G.J., Jamrozik, K., Broadhurst, R.J.
and Anderson, C. (2004) Ten-year risk of first recurrent
stroke and disability after first-ever stroke in the Perth
community stroke study. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral
Circulation , 35, 731-735.
doi:10.116101.STR.0000116183.50167.D9

38 Hardie, K., Hankey, G.J., Jamrozik, K., Broadhurst, R.J.
and Anderson, C. (2003) Ten-year survival after first-ever
stroke in the perth community stroke study. Stroke; A
Journal of Cerebral Circulation , 34, 1842-1846.
doi:10.116101.STR.0000082382.42061.EE

39 Hankey, G.J. (2005) Secondary prevention of recurrent
stroke. Stroke; A Journal of Cerebral Circulation, 36, 218-
221. doi:10.116101.STR.0000153048.87248.3b

40 Streifler, J.Y., Eliasziw, M., Benavente, O.R., Alamowitch,
S., Fox, A.J., Hachinski, V.C. and Barnett, H.J.M. (2002)
Prognostic importance of leukoar aiosis in patients with
symptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. Stroke; A Jour-
nal of Cerebral Circulation , 33, 1651-1655.
doi:10.116101.STR.0000018010.38749.08

41 Sachdev, P.S., Brodaty, H., Va lenzuela, M.J., Lorentz, L.,
Looi, J.C.L., Wen, W. and Zagami, A.S. (2004) The
neuropsychological profile of vascular cognitive impair-
ment in stroke and TIA patients. Neurology, 62, 912-919.
doi:10.121201.WNL.0000115108.65264.4B

42 Hankey, G.J. (2003) Long-term outcome after ischaemic
stroketransient ischaemic attack. Cerebrovascular Dis-
eases (Basel , Switzerland ), 16 , 14-19.
doi:10.1159000069936

43 Simis, S. and Nitrini, R. (2006) Cognitive improvement
after treatment of depressive symptoms in the acute phase
of stroke. Arquivos De Neuro-Psiquiatria , 64 , 412-417.
doi:10.1590S0004-282X2006000300012

44 Dalle Carbonare, L., Maggi, S. , Noale, M., Giannini, S.,
Rozzini, R., Lo Cascio, V. and Crepaldi, G. (2009) Physical
disability and depressive sy mptomatology in an elderly
population: A complex relations hip. The Italian Longitu-
dinal Study on Aging (ILSA). The American Journal of
Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American
Association for Geriatric Psychiatry , 17, 144-154.
doi:10.1097JGP.0b013e31818af817

45 Zatzick, D., Jurkovich, G.J., Rivara, F.P., Wang, J., Fan,
M.-Y., Joesch, J. and Macken zie, E. (2008) A national US
study of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and
work and functional outcomes after hospitalization for
Copyright 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth

F. J. Aidar et al. Health 5 (2013) 222-228
Copyright 2013 SciRes. http:www.scirp.orgjournalhealth
Openly accessible at

228
traumatic injury. Annals of Surgery , 248, 429-437.
46 Siepman, T.A.M., Janssens, A.C.J.W., De Koning, I.,
Polman, C.H., Boringa, J.B. and Hintzen, R.Q. (2008)
The role of disability and depression in cognitive func-
tioning within 2 years after multiple sclerosis diagnosis.
Journal of Neurology , 255, 910-916.
doi:10.1007s00415-008-0814-x

47 Lee, Y. and Park, K. (2008) Does physical activity moder-
ate the association between depressive symptoms and
disability in older adults? International Journal of Geri-
atric Psychiatry , 23, 249-256. doi:10.1002gps.1870

48 Ding, Y., Li, J., Lai, Q., Rafols, J.A., Luan, X., Clark, J.
and Diaz, F.G. (2004) Motor balance and coordination
training enhances functional out come in rat with transient
middle cerebral artery occlusion. Neuroscience, 123 , 667-
674. doi:10.1016j.neuroscience.2003.08.031

49 Carod-Artal, F.J. (2006) Post-stroke depression (I). Epi-
demiology, diagnostic criteria and risk factors. Revista De
Neurologia , 42, 169-175.
50 Carod-Artal, F.J., Ferreira Coral, L., Trizotto, D.S. and
Menezes Moreira, C. (2009) Poststroke depression: Preva-
lence and determinants in Brazilian stroke patients. Cere-
brovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland ), 28, 157-165.
doi:10.1159000226114
51
Sagen, U., Vik, T.G., Moum, T., Mrland, T., Finset, A.
and Dammen, T. (2009) Screening for anxiety and de-
pression after stroke: Comparis on of the hospital anxiety
and depression scale and the Montgomery and Asberg
depression rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Re-
search , 67, 325-332.
doi:10.1016j.jpsychores.2009.03.007

52 Cumming, T.B., Collier, J., Thrift, A.G. and Bernhardt, J.
(2008) The effect of very early mobilisation after stroke
on psychological well-being. Journal of Rehabilitation
Medicine : Official Journal of the UEMS European Board
of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine , 40, 609-614.
doi:10.234016501977-0226

53 Fure, B. (2007) Depression, anxiety and other emotional
symptoms after cerebral stroke. Tidsskrift for Den Norske
Lgeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin , Ny Rkke ,
127, 1387-1389.
54 Conn, V.S. (2010) Anxiety outcomes after physical activ-
ity interventions: Meta-analysis findings. Nursing Research,
59, 224-231. doi:10.1097NNR.0b013e3181dbb2f8

55 Subirats Bayego, E., Subirats Vila, G. and Soteras Martnez,
I. (2012) Exercise prescrip tion: Indications, dosage and
side effects. Medicina Clnica , 138, 18-24.
doi:10.1016j.medcli.2010.12.008

Latest Video